The Israeli West Bank barrier or wall for further names see here is a separation barrier in the West Bank or along the Green Line. Israel considers it a security barrier against terrorism, while Palestinians call it a racial segregation or apartheid wall. The barrier was built during the Second Intifada that began in Septemberand was defended by the Israeli government as necessary to stop the wave of violence inside Israel that the uprising had brought with it.
Barrier opponents claim it seeks to annex Palestinian land under the guise of security  and undermines peace negotiations by unilaterally establishing new borders. In Hebrewdescriptions include: In English, the BBC 's style guide uses the terms barrier sometimes separation barrier or West Bank barrier  as does The Economist PBS  and the New York Times.
These sections are narrower, require less land, and provide more protection against snipers. Wall construction is more common in urban settings, e. SomePalestinians in Jerusalem will be placed on the West Bank side. Israel states that the topography does not permit putting the barrier along the Green Line in some places because hills or tall buildings on the Palestinian side would make the barrier ineffective against terrorism.
The barrier route has been challenged in court and changed several times. Argument presented to the court has reiterated that the cease-fire line of was negotiated "without prejudice to future territorial settlements or boundary lines" Art. Inthe idea of creating a physical barrier separating the Israeli and Palestinian populations was proposed by then-prime minister Yitzhak Rabin.
Ina first barrier was constructed along the Green Line between Bat Hefer and Tulkarm. Inthe Shahal commission was established to discuss how to implement a separation barrier. On 23 Junethe Ariel Sharon Government definitely approved the plan in principle   and work at the barrier begun.
Suicide bombings have decreased since the construction of the barrier.
The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Israel Security Agency report that inthere were fatalities from terrorist attacks. Before the completion of the first continuous segment July from the beginning of the Second Intifada, 73 Palestinian suicide bombings were carried out from the West Bank, killing Israelis and injuring over 1, After the completion of the first continuous segment through the end ofthere were only 12 attacks based in the West Bank, killing 64 people and wounding The Ministry of Foreign Affairs predicts that completion of the barrier will continue to prevent terrorist attacks  since "[a]n absolute halt in terrorist activities has been noticed in the West Bank areas where the fence has been constructed.
Israeli officials including the head of the Shin Bet quoted in the newspaper Maariv have said that in the areas where the barrier was complete, the number of hostile infiltrations has decreased to almost zero. Maariv also stated that Palestinian militants, including a senior member of Islamic Jihadhad confirmed that the barrier made it much harder to conduct attacks inside Israel. Since the completion of the fence in the area of Tulkarm and Qalqilyah in Junethere have been no successful attacks from those areas.
All attacks were intercepted or the suicide bombers detonated prematurely. Other factors are also cited as causes for the decline. According to Haaretza report by the Shin Beit concluded that "[t]he fence does make it harder for them [terrorists]" but that attacks in decreased due to increased pursuing of Palestinian militants by the Israeli army and intelligence organizations, Hamas's increased political activity, and a truce among Palestinian militant groups in the Palestinian Territories.
Haaretz reported, "[t]he security fence is no longer mentioned as the major factor in preventing suicide bombings, mainly because the terrorists have found ways to bypass it. The barrier has many effects on Palestinians including reduced freedoms, reduction of the number of Israel Defense Forces checkpoints and road closures, loss of land, increased difficulty in accessing medical and educational services in Israel,   restricted access to water sources, and economic effects.
In a report, the United Nations stated that:. The route inside the West Bank severs communities, people's access to services, livelihoods and religious and cultural amenities. In addition, plans for the Barrier's exact route and crossing points through it are often not fully revealed until days before construction commences. This has led to considerable anxiety amongst Palestinians about how their future lives will be impacted.
The land between the Barrier and the Green Line constitutes some of the most fertile in the West Bank.
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It is currently the home for 49, West Bank Palestinians living in 38 villages and towns. An often-quoted example of the effects of the barrier is the Palestinian town of Qalqilyah, a city of around 45, which is surrounded almost on all sides by the barrier. One 8 meter-high concrete section of this wall follows the Green Line between the city and the nearby Trans-Israel Highway.
According to the BBC, this section, referred to as an "anti-sniper wall," is intended to prevent gun attacks against Israeli motorists on the Trans-Israel Highway. Inthe Israeli Supreme Court ordered the government to change the route of the barrier in this area to ease movement of Palestinians between Qalqilyah and five surrounding villages. In the same ruling, the court rejected the arguments that the fence must be built only on the Green Line. The ruling cited the topography of the terrain, security considerations, and sections 43 and 52 of The Hague Regulations and Article 53 of the Fourth Geneva Convention as reasons for this rejection.
In early Octoberthe IDF OC Central Command declared the area between the separation barrier in the northern section of the West Bank Stage 1 and the Green Line a closed military area for an indefinite period. New directives stated that every Palestinian over the age of twelve living in the enclaves created in the closed area have to obtain a "permanent resident permit" from the Civil Administration to enable them to continue to live in their homes. Other residents of the West Bank have to obtain special permits to enter the area.
In JuneThe Washington Times  reported that the reduced Israeli military incursions in Jenin have prompted efforts to rebuild damaged streets and buildings and a gradual return to a semblance of normality, and in a letter  dated October 25,from the Israeli mission to Kofi AnnanIsrael's government pointed out that a number of restrictions east of the barrier have been lifted as a result of it, including a reduction in checkpoints from 71 to 47 and roadblocks from to The Jerusalem Post reports that, for some Palestinians who are Israeli citizens living in the Israeli Arab town of Umm el-Fahm population 42, near Jenin, the barrier has "significantly improved their lives" because, on one hand, it prevents would-be thieves or terrorists from coming to their town and, on the other hand, has increased the flow of customers from other parts of Israel who would normally have patronised Palestinian business in the West Bank, resulting in an economic boom.
The report states that the downsides are that the barrier has divided families in half and "damaged Israeli Arabs' solidarity with the Palestinians living on the other side of the Green Line". A UN report released in August observed that the existence of the barrier "replaced the need for closures: Physical obstacles have also been removed in Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate and Jerusalem Governorate where the Barrier is under construction.
Parts of the barrier are built on land seized from Palestinians,   or between Palestinians and their lands  In a report, the UN said that the most recent barrier route allocates more segments to be built on the Green Line itself compared to previous draft routes of the barrier. However, in its current route the barrier is annexing 9. In early63 shops straddling the Green Line were demolished by the IDF during construction of the wall in the village of Nazlat Issa.
According to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency UNRWA15 communities were to be directly affected, numbering aboutPalestinians, including 13, refugee families, or 67, individuals. In addition to loss of land, in the city of Qalqilyah one-third of the city's water wells lie on the other side of the barrier. The Israeli Supreme Court says the Israeli government's rejection of accusations of a de facto annexation of these wells, stating that "the construction of the fence does not affect the implementation of the water agreements determined in the interim agreement".
The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia ESCWA estimates that in the north of the West Bank about 80 per cent of Palestinians who own land on the other side of the barrier have not received permits from the Israeli authorities, and hence cannot cultivate their fields.
Israel has built a barrier in the Jordan Valley near the Jordanian border. A plan to build another barrier between the West Bank and the Jordan valley was abandoned because of international condemnation after the International Court ruling, instead instituting a restrictive permit regime for Palestinians.
In addition, almost a third of West Bank villages will suffer from lack of access to healthcare.
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After completion, many residents may lose complete access to emergency care at night. In towns near Jerusalem Abu Dis and al-Eizariyafor example, average time for an ambulance to travel to the nearest hospital has increased from 10 minutes to over minutes.
Farming is a primary source of income in the Palestinian communities situated along the Barrier's route, an area that constitutes one of the most fertile areas in the West Bank. The harm to the farming sector is liable to have drastic economic effects on the residents — whose economic situation is already very difficult — and drive many families into poverty.
In Octobera United Nations resolution to declare the barrier illegal where it deviates from the green line and should be torn down was vetoed by the US in the United Nations Security Council. On May 19,the United Nations passed Security Council Resolution reiterating the obligation of Israel, the occupying Power, to abide scrupulously by its legal obligations and responsibilities under the Fourth Geneva Conventionand called on Israel to address its security needs within the boundaries of international law.
In a special emergency session of the General Assemblythe United Nations asked the International Court of Justice [ICJ] to evaluate the legal status of the barrier. Israel chose not to accept ICJ jurisdiction nor make oral statements, and instead submitted a page written statement containing the views of the Government of Israel on Jurisdiction and Propriety to the Court.
In a advisory opinion by the International Court of Justice"Israel cannot rely on a right of self-defence or on a state of necessity in order to preclude the wrongfulness of the construction of the wall". So in the July 9, advisory opinion the ICJ advised that the barrier is a violation of international law, that it should be removed, that Arab residents should be compensated for any damage done, and that other states take action to obtain Israel's compliance with the Fourth Geneva Convention.
The ICJ said that an occupying power cannot claim that the lawful inhabitants of the occupied territory constitute a "foreign" threat for the purposes of Article 51 of the UN Charter. It also explained that necessity may constitute a circumstance precluding wrongfulness under certain very limited circumstances, but that Article 25 of the International Law Commission's Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts ARSIWA bars a defense of necessity if the State has contributed to the situation of necessity.
The Court cited illegal interference by the government of Israel with the Palestinian's national right to self-determination; and land confiscations, house demolitions, the creation of enclaves, and restrictions on movement and access to water, food, education, health care, work, and an adequate standard of living in violation of Israel's obligations under international law.
The Court also said that Israeli settlements had been established and that Palestinians had been displaced in violation of Article 49, paragraph 6, of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Israeli supporters of the barrier stood in the plaza near the courthouse, holding the portraits of terror victims.
The organization Christians for Israel helped bring the No. In AprilB'Tselem stated that "Israel has made cynical use of security claims to justify grave human rights violations in the Occupied Territories Among other things the determination of the route of the barrier was based on political considerations, the attempt to leave the settlements to the west of the barrier, and protection of access routes for religious sites - none of which are at all related to military considerations.
This situation is likely to render the entire separation barrier project illegal according to international law.
However, it did rule that the Barrier is legal in principle and accepted the Israeli government's assertion that it is a security measure.
On September 15,the Supreme Court of Israel ordered the Israeli government to alter the route of the barrier to ensure that negative impacts on Palestinians would be minimized and proportional.
The court concluded that the barrier violated international law. Israel, the US, Australia, the Federated States of Micronesiathe Marshall Islands and Palau. The US and Israel rejected both the verdict and the resolution.
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According to a survey conducted by the Tami Steinmetz Center for Peace Researchan academic research institution of Tel Aviv Universitythere was overwhelming support for the barrier among the Jewish population of Israel: Some Israelis oppose the barrier. The Israeli Peace Now movement has stated that while they would support a barrier that follows the Armistice linesthe "current route of the fence is intended to destroy all chances of a future peace settlement with the Palestinians and to annex as much land as possible from the West Bank" and that the barrier would "only increase the blood to be spilt on both sides and continue the sacrificing of Israeli and Palestinian lives for the settlements.
Shaul Arieli, a senior member of the Council for Peace and Security and one of the architects of the Geneva Initiative wrote in Haaretz in March of the importance "to complete the fence along a route based on security considerations. He called on the public to "demand that the new government complete the fence quickly and along a logical route. Daniel AyalonIsrael's ambassador to the United States, suggested that reduced ability to conduct attacks would "save the political process" because the barrier would neutralize the ability of militant groups "to hold that process hostage" by conducting these acts.
Natan SharanskyMinister of Housing and Construction at the time, viewed the security fence as an option for Israel to defend itself, because the Palestinian Authority had not become a partner in fighting terror, as it was obliged to do under all the agreements that it signed . The Anti-Defamation League heavily criticized the ruling of the Court of Justice condemning the West Bank Barrier, asserting that the outcome was stacked against Israel in advance through the biased wording of the submission.
It said that Israel was systematically excluded from any say in the Court's makeup and asserted that an anti-Israel environment prevails at the General Assembly, which "regularly demonize[s] Israel".
According to the ADL, the politicized nature of the process that produced the opinion threatens to undermine the integrity of the Court and contravene constructive efforts to promote peace in the region. The Palestinian population and its leadership are essentially unanimous in opposing the barrier.
A significant number of Palestinians have been separated from their own farmlands or their places of work or study, and many more will be separated as the barriers near Jerusalem are completed. Furthermore, because of its planned route as published by the Israeli government, the barrier is perceived as a plan to confine the Palestinian population to specific areas.
More broadly, Palestinian spokespersons, supported by many in the Israeli left wing and other organizations, say that the hardships imposed by the barrier will breed further discontent amongst the affected population how to earn money on msp on ipad add to the security problem rather than solving it.
In his November interview with Al-Manar TVPalestinian Islamic Jihad leader Ramadan Salah said that the barrier is an important obstacle, and that "if it weren't there, the situation would be entirely different. The Palestinian National Authority has accused the U. They are rewarding illegal occupation, settlement and the apartheid wall. For over five years, hundreds of Palestinians and Israeli activists have gathered every week to protest the barrier at the town of Bil'in. Between 23 December and 5 January a major demonstration against the wall was staged in London, in the grounds of St James's Church, Piccadilly.
The demonstration was entitled "Bethlehem Unwrapped", and featured a large section of replica wall, reproducing both the fabric of the Israeli wall, and the graffiti to be found on it. Protesters staffed the wall in order to explain the demonstration to visitors and passers-by. Large signs were erected, drawing attention to intentional protest against the wall. Particular reference was made to the International Court of Justice judgement of 9 July that the security wall contravened international law.
The demonstration took place just days after the death of Nelson Mandelaand prominence was therefore given on billboards to Mandella's statement "The UN took a strong stand against apartheid We know too well that our freedom is incomplete without the freedom of the Palestinians". They invited visitors to add additional graffiti, particularly in the forms of prayers for peace. The Red Cross has declared the barrier in violation of the Geneva Convention. On February 18,The International Committee of the Red Cross stated that the Israeli barrier "causes serious profitable trading strategy to binary options and legal problems" and goes "far beyond what is permissible for an occupying power".
Amnesty InternationalHuman Rights Watch and other Human rights groups have protested both the routing of the wall and the means by which the land to build the wall was obtained. This in order to facilitate passage between Israel and more than 50 illegal Israeli settlements located in the West Bank.
On February 20, the World Council of Churches demanded that Israel halt and reverse construction on the barrier and strongly at the money european put option in-the-money theta "violations of human rights and humanitarian consequences" that resulted from the construction of the barrier.
While acknowledging Israel's serious security concerns and asserting that the construction of the barrier on its own territory would not have been a violation of international law, the statement called on "member Churches, Ecumenical Councils of Churches, Christian World Communions and specialized ministries of churches to condemn the wall as an act of unlawful annexation.
Inwhen the Bush administration was considering reducing loan guarantees to Israel to discourage construction of the fence, then Secretary of State Colin Powell criticized the project. He said, "A nation is within its rights to put up a fence if it sees the need for one.
However, in the case of the Israeli fence, we are concerned when the fence crosses over onto the land of others. For example, Senator Joe LiebermanD-Conn. On April 14,President of the United States George W. Bush said "In light of new realities on the ground, including already existing major Israeli population centers, it is unrealistic to expect that the outcome of final status negotiations will be a full and complete return to free amibroker trading system armistice lines offorex volume indicator all previous efforts to negotiate a two-state solution have reached the same conclusion.
On May 25,Bush said, "I think fnb forex account wall is a problem. And I discussed this with Ariel Sharon. It is very difficult to develop confidence between the Palestinians and Israel with a wall snaking through the West Bank.
InHillary Clintonat the time a U. Senator from New York, said she supports the separation columbus day 2016 is stock market open Israel is building along the edges of the West Bank, and that the onus is on the Palestinian Authority to fight terrorism.
The Palestinian people have to help to prevent terrorism. They have to change the attitudes about terrorism. InSenator Charles Schumer said: According to EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashtonthe EU considers the barrier to be illegal to the extent it is built on Palestinian land. The Canadian Government recognizes Israel's right to protect its citizens from terrorist attacks, including through the restriction of access to its territory, and by building a barrier on its own territory for security purposes.
However, it opposes the barrier's incursion into and the disruption of occupied territories.
Considering the West Bank including East Jerusalem to be "occupied territory", the Canadian government total revenue earned by ek tha tiger the barrier to be contrary to international law under the Fourth Geneva Convention.
It opposes the barrier and the expropriations and the demolition of houses and economic infrastructure preceding its construction. Although the Barrier is purported to be a temporary defense against Palestinian attacks, many view it as significant octa forex penipu terms of future negotiations over Israel's final borders.
James Zogbypresident of the Arab American Institutehas said that the barrier has "unilaterally helped to demarcate the route for future Israeli control over huge West Bank settlement blocks and large swathes of West Bank land".
Some have speculated that the barrier will prejudice the outcome of border negotiations in favor of the Israelis. The fence is a warning: If Palestinians don't stop terrorism and forfeit their dream of destroying Israel, Israel may impose its own map on them The Israeli Deputy Defence Minister in stated that the barrier did not necessarily delineate the down and out call barrier option of a future Palestinian State.
On March 9,The New York Times quoted then-acting Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert as stating that if his Kadima party wins the upcoming national elections, he would seek to set Israel's permanent borders byand that the boundary would run along or close to the barrier.
In it was reported that Israel had presented principles for drawing a border, which essentially propose to turn the West Bank separation barrier into the border with a future Palestinian state. Ahmad Hajihosseini, Observer for the Organization of the Islamic Conference OICsaid that building and maintaining the wall is a crime of apartheid isolating Palestinian communities in the West Bank and consolidating the annexation of Palestinian land by Israeli settlements. Malcolm Heddinga South African minister who worked against South African apartheid and Executive Director of the International Christian Embassy in Jerusalemsaid that the West Bank barrier has nothing to do with apartheid and everything to do with Israel's self-defense.
He said that Israel has proven its desire to reach an accommodation with the Palestinians while granting political rights to its own Arab citizens within a liberal democratic system, but that the Palestinians remain committed to Israel's destruction.
By contrast, he says, it was a tiny minority in South 1000 earnest money deposit that held power and once democracy came, the National Party that had dominated the masses disappeared. The wall has been used as a canvas for many paintings and writings. It has been called the "world's largest protest graffiti".
Graffiti on the Palestinian side of the wall has been one of many forms of protest against its existence, demanding an end to the barrier, or criticizing its builders and its existence jobs during the stock market crash to the Ghetto -Abu Dis"  and "Blessed are the Peacemakers" .
In AugustU. The exhibition "Santa's Ghetto in Bethlehem "  was co-organized by Banksy and a number of other artists with the aim of drawing attention to poverty in the West Bank and boosting tourism.
Although many artists received positive attention and reviews, some Palestinian people had negative opinions toward the artists' movement. A street artist from New York, Swoon, put two works on the Sentry towers in Bethlehem. She did not anticipate that some Palestinians would be opposed to her efforts.
Swoon states that there was much enthusiasm from the kids of the Aida refugee camp, who were excited about the new artwork going on the wall. While the kids were excited, many elders believed that the children would grow up with the wrong, positive idea of the wall. One elder from the refugee camp claimed that "they don't necessarily want the kids to start viewing that area positively, and so they see the work as a thing of beauty, but in a place where beauty shouldn't be" Parry, Most international artists felt that they were creating pse stocks to buy 2016 for the people trapped behind wall, as well as creating an international symbol that would be broadcast around the world.
Although the graffiti artists felt that they were making a statement with their pieces that would help bring attention and help to the Palestinians, many Palestinians feel that it turns the wall into something beautiful. By painting on the wall, some Palestinians feel that the wall turns into a work of art instead "of an aggressive prison Wall" Parry, Of course, transforming the wall into something positive was not the intention of the artists. They thought that their work would bring out the oppressiveness and the emotion responses of the people affected by the wall.
On June 21,when he visited Israel to give a concert, Pink Floyd 's Roger Waters wrote "Tear down the wall" on the wall, a phrase from the Pink Floyd album The Wall. Inwith their project "Face2Face",  French artists JR and "Marco", organized what was then until at leastconsidered to be the largest illegal photography exhibition ever made.
The idea was to highlight similarities rather than differences between the real time currency charts. The project spanned over eight cities on both sides of the wall such as Bethlehem, Jericho, Ramallah and Jerusalem.
As part of a Dutch-Palestinian collaboration, led by Palestinian activist Faris Arouri, Internet users were invited to submit character long messages to be spray-painted on the security barrier in exchange for a donation of 30 Euro.
Messages that included or incited racism, hate, violence or pornography were rejected. When the project was forex volume indicator, it was claimed to have reached , people worldwide and placed 1, messages on the wall.
The result was a 1,word letter in English written in a single line and stretching over 2. The barrier is also the subject of the documentary film, 5 Broken Cameraswhich documents carrollton oh livestock auction story of Emad Burnat, a Palestinian farmer of the Palestinian village of Bil'in, who had intended to use his videocamera to record vignettes of his son's childhood but ended up filming the resistance movement to the Israeli separation wall that was erected through effect of inflation on equity markets village.
In Etrade vs td ameritrade penny stocks The Guardian reported that Yemeni opposition newspapers likened the barrier Saudi Arabia was building to the Israeli West Bank barrier,  while The Independent headed an maybank philippines foreign exchange rate with "Saudi Arabia, one of the most vocal critics in the Arab world of Israel's "security belajar analisa forex pdf in the West Bank, is quietly emulating the Israeli example by erecting a china forex trading outlook along its porous border with Yemen".
Head of Saudi Arabia's border guard, Talal Anqawi, dismissed comparisons with Israel's West Bank barrier: What is being constructed inside our borders with Yemen is a sort of screen Inthe idea of creating a physical barrier between the Israeli and Palestinian populations was proposed by then-prime minister Yitzhak Rabinfollowing the murder of an Israeli teenage girl in Jerusalem.
Rabin said that Israel must "take Gaza out of Tel Aviv " in order to minimize forex live discussion between the peoples. There has to be a clear border. Without demarcating the lines, whoever wants to swallow 1. We want to reach a separation between us and them. Inthe first section of a barrier slabs of concrete contiguous for miles was constructed.
The section follows the border between Bat Hefer and Tulkarm communities. Inthe Shahal commission was established by Yitzhak Rabin to discuss how to implement a barrier separating Israelis and Palestinians. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barakprior to the Camp How do i buy boeing stock Summit with Yasser Arafatvowed to build a separation barrier, stating that it is "essential to the Palestinian nation in alforex ibs to foster its national identity and independence without being dependent on the State of Israel".
On 23 Junethe government definitely approved the plan in principle. By Marchinfrastructure and construction work along most of the approved route had begun. InIsrael started the southern part of the barrier. In particular, Israeli cabinet members said modifications would be made to reduce the number of checkpoints Palestinians had to cross, and especially to reduce Palestinian hardship in areas such andrzej kiedrowicz easy forex the city of Qalqilyah which the barrier completely surrounds.
On February 20, how to earn money by shorten url, the Israeli cabinet approved the barrier's route on the same day it approved the execution of the Gaza disengagement plan.
Before, the exact route of the barrier had not been determined, and it had been alleged by opponents that the barrier route would encircle the Samarian highlands of the West Bank, separating them from the Jordan valley. In Junein exchange for Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's support Israel's planned withdrawal from Gaza, Prime Minister Sharon pledged to build an extension of the barrier to the east of the settlement Ariel to be completed before the finish of the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip.
Despite the ICJ ruling that the wall beyond the Green Line is illegal, Ariel Sharon reiterated on September 8,that the large settlement blocs of Ariel, Ma'aleh Adumim and Gush Etzion will be on the Israeli side of the Barrier. He also decided that the Barrier would run east of Ariel, but its connection with the main fence be postponed. Inthe Israeli Supreme Court made reference to the conditions and history that led to the building of the barrier. The Court described the history of violence against Israeli citizens since the breakout of the Second Intifada and the loss of life that ensued on the Israeli side.
The court ruling also cited the attempts Israel had made to defend its citizens, including "military operations" carried out against "terrorist acts", and stated that these actions "did not provide a sufficient answer to the immediate need to stop the severe acts of terrorism. Despite all these measures, the terror did not come to an end. The attacks did not cease. Innocent people paid with both life and limb. This is the background behind the decision to construct the separation fence Id.
The Alfei Menashe settlement bloc was reduced in size, and the new plan leaves three groups of Palestinian houses on the Palestinian side of the fence. The barrier's route in the Jerusalem area will leave Beit Iksa on the Palestinian side; and Jaba on the Israeli side, but with a crossing to the Palestinian side at Tzurif.
Further changes were made to the route around Eshkolot and Metzadot Yehudaand the route from Metzadot to Har Choled was approved. The fence is scheduled to go through the national park, the Nahal Rafaim valley, and the Palestinian village of Battir. The Israeli land appropriated in Gva'ot would be on the Palestinian trading in the global currency markets cornelius luca pdf of the barrier.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Final borders Israeli settlements Jewish state. Israeli West Bank barrier Places of worship Fatah—Hamas conflict Water Electricity. The "Quartet" United Nations United States European Union Russia. Arab League Egypt Jordan. Isratin Elon Peace Plan. Allon Plan Arab Peace Initiative Geneva Initiative Lieberman Plan Israeli Peace Initiative Palestinian Prisoners' Document. Seam London stock market crash 1987 and House demolition in the Israeli—Palestinian conflict.
Israeli Supreme Court opinions on the West Bank Barrier. International law and the Arab—Israeli conflict. Israel and the apartheid analogy. Border barrierIsrael—Gaza barrierand Israel—Egypt barrier. Stewart, The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives, Routledge, p. The State of Israel. Archived from the original on October 3, The Security Fence is being built with the sole purpose of saving the lives of the Israeli citizens who continue to be targeted by the terrorist campaign that began in The fact that over men, women and children have been killed in horrific suicide bombings and other terror attacks clearly justifies the attempt to place a physical barrier in the path of terrorists.
It should be noted that terrorism has been defined throughout the international community as a crime against humanity. As such, the State of Israel not only has the right but also the obligation to do everything in its power to lessen the impact and scope of terrorism on the citizens of Israel. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Israel. Archived from the original on Fewer Israeli civilians died in Palestinian attacks in than in any year since the Palestinian uprising began in Palestinian militants killed 23 Israelis and foreign visitors indown from a high of in during the height of the uprising.
Most significant, successful suicide bombings in Israel nearly came to a halt. Last year, only two Palestinian suicide bombers managed to sneak into Israel for attacks that killed 11 people and wounded 30 others.
Israel has gone nearly nine months without a suicide bombing inside its borders, the longest period without such an attack since [ Noa Meir, a spokeswoman for the Israel Defense Forces.
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British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies: Routing the Separation Barrier to Enable Israeli Settlement Expansion in the West Bank". The fact that the Separation Barrier cuts into the West Bank was and remains the main cause of human rights violations of Palestinians living near the Barrier. Israel contends that the Barrier's route is based solely on security considerations.
This report disputes that contention and proves that one of the primary reasons for choosing the route of many sections of the Barrier was to place certain areas intended for settlement expansion on the "Israeli" side of the Barrier. In some of the cases, for all intents and purposes the expansion constituted the establishment of a new settlement. The Palestinian Authority, meanwhile, preoccupied with the road map and its own internal politics, 'has neglected the wall,' according to Jamal Juma.
Yet the wall is crucial to the road map. At the very least, it is an attempt to preempt negotiations with a land grab that establishes new borders and what the road map calls ' facts on the ground ' that must be heeded. Arguably it is more devious: Bearing Witness - Eight weeks in Palestine. The wall shuts out the world beyond, creating an eerie silence and an absence of landscape. Eventually, it will encircle the town, but already, there is only one gate in and out of Qalquilya.
Moving to and from the town is a draining process of waiting in the sunshine while papers are taken away and thought about. You can't take a car from one side to the other. When you finally get through, you have to trudge through a no-man's-land to pick up a bus or taxi.
Until the start of the current round of violence the second intifada, in September85, Israelis and Palestinians used to pour into Qalquilya every week to visit the shops and markets. Goods were cheaper than in Israel. No one comes any more, partly out of fear, partly because it's so hard to get in or out. And now the barrier threatens to cut the town off from 80 per cent of its agricultural land and 19 of its wells. Now, 4, people—10 per cent of the population—have left.
An additional 2, heads of household have gone to find work elsewhere, leaving their families behind. Unemployment is now 69 per cent. With its bottleneck entrance so often corked, the town is coming close to economic strangulation.
More than businesses have closed and many residents have been unable to pay their municipal taxes, with the result that the Qalquilya municipality owes about 3. The story of overcrowding and economic peril will be repeated in other Palestinian cities, according to Jamal Juma, co-ordinator of the Palestinian Environmental Network: Forced off the land, Palestinians will be clustered into already heavily populated urban areas; with no alternative sources of income, they will be a source of cheap labour for Israeli factories.
Can Human Rights Fight Back? Archived from the original on March 7, BBC journalists should try to avoid using terminology favoured by one side or another in any dispute. The BBC uses the terms "barrier", "separation barrier" or "West Bank barrier" as acceptable generic descriptions to avoid the political connotations of "security fence" preferred by the Israeli government or "apartheid wall" preferred by Palestinians.
International Court of Justice. Archived from the original on March 30, Territory, population, and environmental narratives in Palestine and Israel". Ministry of Defense Israel.
The Security Fence is a multi layered composite obstacle comprised of several elements: International Legality of the Security Fence and Sections near Alfei Menashe". Supreme Court of Israel. Human Rights Violations as a Result of Israel's Separation Barrierpp. Yehezkel Lein, B'Tselem, March Due to topographic constraints, a narrower barrier will be erected in some areas and will not include all of the elements that support the electronic fence.
However, as the state indicated to the High Court of Justice, "in certain cases, the barrier will reach a width of one hundred meters due to the topographic conditions. Its main purpose is to prevent sniper fire into Israel and on major highways and roads.
In this case, a solid concrete wall resembling a highway sound barrier often used in the US and Europe is erected.Barrier stock option
This design is used mainly along the new Trans - Israel Highway, in Bat Hefer and Matan, and in densely populated urban areas such as Jerusalem. Israel hands out land confiscation notices". The West Bank barrier generally runs close to the pre Mideast war border—the so-called Green Line—but dips into the West Bank to include some Jewish settlements.
Israel says a new section will extend deep into the West Bank, surrounding several West Bank towns. OCHAoPt, March 1. United Nations, Office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs. West Bank land affected About 77, hectaresacres — or about This will include 16, hectares 39, acres enclosed in a series of enclaves and 62, hectaresacres in closed areas between the Green Line and the Barrier.
Members of Palestinian terror infrastructure caught and questioned disclosed the reality that the existence of the security fence in the Samaria area forces them to find other means to perform terror attacks because their previous entry to Israel is blocked.
National Christian Leadership Conference for Israel: In Judea and Samaria the security forces maintain counterterrorist activity pressure which includes the detention of wanted terrorists, exposing weapons and killing the terrorist operatives who resisted detention.
Successful counterterrorist activities and finishing many sections of the security fence led to a continued decrease in suicide bombing terrorism. Check date values in: Palestinian truce main cause for reduced terror". The fence, revisited Haaretz October 28, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine: Archived from the original PDF on What is the West Bank barrier?
The solid section around the Palestinian town of Qalqilya is conceived as a "sniper wall" to prevent gun attacks against Israeli motorists on the nearby Trans-Israel Highway.
Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations. Archived from the original on 30 November Retrieved 24 July Closure Count and Analysis" PDF.
Archived from the original pdf on Humanitarian Emergency Policy Group HEPG. In preparation of the new route of the Barrier in Nazlat Isa, the IDF demolished more than shops during August A second demolition of 82 shops was completed by the IDF in January Storeowners were given as little as 30 minutes to evacuate their premises before the demolitions started.
Apart from Tulkarm town, Nazlat Isa was the main commercial centre for the Tulkarm area and was heavily dependent on commerce with Israel. FACTS AND FIGURES" pdf.
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia ESCWA. Environment Too Encounters a BarrierInter Press ServiceNovember 25, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. In Abu Dis and Aizaria, two Palestinian towns where the barrier has already been completed, the average time for an ambulance to travel to the nearest hospitals in Jerusalem has increased from about 10 minutes to over one hour and 50 minutes, according to the report. Mr Garrigue says that once the barrier is completed this problem will affect many more villages.
Physicians for Human Rights-Israel. Archived from the original Word DOC on February 28, AUS, WEST BANK AND GAZA: Area C and the Future of the Palestinian Economy, October 2, ; Page 30; http: How to Build a Fence at the Wayback Machine archived February 19,pp.
The harm to the farming sector is liable to have drastic economic effects on the residents - whose economic situation is already very difficult - and drive many families into poverty. A UN report into the humanitarian impact of Israel's West Bank barrier says it has caused widespread losses to Palestinian farmers. The International Court of Justice has said the barrier Israel is building to seal off the West Bank violates international law because it infringes on the rights of Palestinians.
In an advisory opinion issued Friday in The Hague, the U. The nonbinding opinion also found that Israel was obligated to return confiscated land or make reparations for any destruction or damage to homes, businesses and farms caused by the barrier's construction.
The Untold Story of Israel's Victims of Terrorism. Human Rights Violations Resulting from Israel's Construction of the Separation Barrier. Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory".
Advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem".
United Nations News Centre. The Case for Democracy p. The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 18 July World Council of Churches. Bank fence, PA must fight terrorism". Retrieved 7 December Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade - Canadian Government. Ehud Olmert, said that if his Kadima Party wins national elections this month, he would seek to set Israel's permanent borders byand that the boundary would run along or close to Israel's separation barrier in the West Bank.
Scholars For Peace in the Middle East. Under painted arches one can glimpse expanses of green lawns and perpetually blue skies, painted by an artist on the gray concrete that hides the Arabs' homes.
Journal of Palestine StudiesVol. Banksy returns to Bethlehem". Walled Christmas tree surrounded by tree stumps. Against the Wall the Art of Resistance in Palestine. Home Videos Evolve into Stirring Film on Palestinian Resistance to Israeli Wall". The Complications and the Road for a Lasting Peacepp. Residents in the Gilboa region waited two years for a separation fence to be built.
Now, after having sent repeated entreaties to the government and having received assorted, unfulfilled promises, they have decided to 'take the law into their own hands,' and build the fence themselves.
Key settlement blocs to stay inside fence. Israel Defense Forces Israel Police Mossad Shabak Shin Bet. Palestinian National Authority Palestine Liberation Organization PLO Fatah Hamas. Moshe Arens Ami Ayalon Ehud Barak Menachem Begin Meir Dagan Moshe Dayan Avi Dichter Yuval Diskin David Ben-Gurion Efraim Halevy Dan Halutz Tzipi Livni Golda Meir Shaul Mofaz Yitzhak Mordechai Benjamin Netanyahu Ehud Olmert Shimon Peres Yaakov Peri Yitzhak Rabin Amnon Lipkin-Shahak Yitzhak Shamir Ariel Sharon Shabtai Shavit Moshe Ya'alon Danny Yatom Zvi Zamir.
Abu Abbas Mahmoud Abbas Moussa Arafat Yasser Arafat Yahya Ayyash Marwan Barghouti Mohammed Dahlan Mohammed Deif George Habash Wadie Haddad Ismail Haniyeh Nayef Hawatmeh Amin al-Husayni Ghazi Jabali Ahmed Jibril Abu Jihad Salah Khalaf Leila Khaled Sheikh Khalil Khaled Mashal Zuheir Mohsen Abu Ali Mustafa Abu Nidal Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Jibril Rajoub Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi Ali Hassan Salameh Salah Shehade Ramadan Shalah Fathi Shaqaqi Ahlam Tamimi Ahmed Yassin.
All-Palestine Egypt Hamas Gaza Iraq Kuwait Israel Jordan Lebanon Palestinian National Authority Saudi Arabia Syria. Abu Nidal Organization Amal al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades Syrian Social Nationalist Party Arab League Arab Liberation Front Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine Fatah Guardians of the Cedars Hamas Hezbollah Jaish al-Islam Kataeb Lebanese Forces al-Mourabitoun Muslim Brotherhood Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestine Liberation Front Palestine Liberation Organization Palestinian Popular Struggle Front Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine — General Command Popular Resistance Committees as-Sa'iqa.
Arab Higher Committee Arab Liberation Army Black Hand Black September Haganah Holy War Army Irgun Etzel Japanese Red Army Lehi Palmach Revolutionary Cells South Lebanon Army. Algeria China Cuba France Iran Kuwait Libya Morocco North Korea Norway Pakistan Russia Sudan Tunisia Turkey Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Venezuela Yemen.
European Union United Nations. Mandatory Palestine Soviet Union United Arab Republic. Bush Jimmy Carter Bill Clinton Henry Kissinger Ronald Reagan Condoleezza Rice Dennis Ross Ramadan Shalah Harry S.
Diplomacy and peace proposals. Retrieved from " https: Israeli West Bank barrier Fences Separation barriers Walls Borders of Israel Borders of the West Bank Geography of the West Bank Israeli Security Forces International Court of Justice cases Human rights in the Palestinian territories Counter-terrorism.
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Part of a series on the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. History Lausanne Conference Primary concerns Final borders Israeli settlements Jewish state Palestinian political violence Palestinian refugees Security concerns Status of Jerusalem Zionist political violence.
Secondary concerns Israeli West Bank barrier Places of worship Fatah—Hamas conflict Water Electricity. International brokers The "Quartet" United Nations United States European Union Russia Arab League Egypt Jordan United Kingdom France.
Isratin Elon Peace Plan Two-state solution: Allon Plan Arab Peace Initiative Geneva Initiative Lieberman Plan Israeli Peace Initiative Palestinian Prisoners' Document Three-state solution Zero-state solution Israeli unilateral plans: Wikimedia Commons has media related to Israeli West Bank barrier.
Participants Israel Israel Defense Forces Israel Police Mossad Shabak Shin Bet. Principals Palestinian National Authority Palestine Liberation Organization PLO Fatah Hamas. Individuals Israelis Moshe Arens Ami Ayalon Ehud Barak Menachem Begin Meir Dagan Moshe Dayan Avi Dichter Yuval Diskin David Ben-Gurion Efraim Halevy Dan Halutz Tzipi Livni Golda Meir Shaul Mofaz Yitzhak Mordechai Benjamin Netanyahu Ehud Olmert Shimon Peres Yaakov Peri Yitzhak Rabin Amnon Lipkin-Shahak Yitzhak Shamir Ariel Sharon Shabtai Shavit Moshe Ya'alon Danny Yatom Zvi Zamir.
Active Abu Nidal Organization Amal al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades Syrian Social Nationalist Party Arab League Arab Liberation Front Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine Fatah Guardians of the Cedars Hamas Hezbollah Jaish al-Islam Kataeb Lebanese Forces al-Mourabitoun Muslim Brotherhood Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestine Liberation Front Palestine Liberation Organization Palestinian Popular Struggle Front Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine — General Command Popular Resistance Committees as-Sa'iqa.